Restraint agreements and orderly marketing agreements are considered grey area measures and have been banned by the World Trade Organization since 1995. All grey area measures in operation at the time were discontinued in 1999.  Orderly marketing agreements deal directly with political tensions in importing countries with an increasing abundance of imports. Disruption to the competitive production of imports can occur when a particular import suddenly increases in a country. This would lead to undesirable economic problems for the factors of production concerned, so that an orderly marketing regime could be put in place to cope with the increase in imports. Orderly marketing agreements help protect against more permanent protectionist measures such as import quotas and tariffs.  These agreements are also restrictive and often affect prices, international relations and free trade. Protectionist strategies implemented under orderly marketing agreements include import quotas, export supply management and trade flow monitoring. The application of orderly marketing agreements generally extends over one to five years, but can be extended continuously to a period of ten years or more.  Ordered marketing agreements also emphasize the difference between binding and non-binding agreements. Orderly marketing agreements are included in holdback agreements; However, restrictive agreements can also refer to trade agreements between industries and governments. The Consumers` Union distinguishes between binding and non-binding agreements between governments and government agreements.
The effects on national and international law differ between binding and non-binding agreements. An agreement could cause problems with national law, but not with international law or vice versa. The desire for orderly marketing modalities has increased due to the increasing pressure exerted by the ever-changing models of import and world trade, which has led to orderly marketing agreements becoming a political instrument. If no agreement is negotiated, the importing country can pursue a more unilateral trade policy.  The United States alone has adopted an orderly marketing regime for imports of textiles, steel, automobiles, electronics and footwear.  In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a marketing agreement was concluded in the steel industry […].