Adaptation issues were further highlighted in the drafting of the Paris Agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must report on their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  Since Trump`s announcement, US envoys have continued to participate in UN climate negotiations as required to consolidate the details of the agreement. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. There has been a wave of participation among city and state officials, business leaders, universities, and individuals in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts is focused on the U.S. working toward the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction. When the agreement reached enough signatures on October 5, 2016 to cross the threshold, US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve all the goals. we will only reach part of where we need to go.
He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations. [ 27]  The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  The Paris Agreement requires each country to define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism that requires a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The agreement provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while providing a framework for transparent monitoring and reporting on countries` climate goals. After all, instead of giving China and India a passport to pollution, as Trump claims, the pact is the first time these two major developing countries have agreed on concrete and ambitious climate commitments. Both countries, which are already poised to be the world leader in renewable energy, have made significant progress towards achieving their Paris targets. And since Trump announced his intention to withdraw the U.S. from the deal, the leaders of China and India have reaffirmed their commitment and continued to implement domestic policies to achieve their goals.
The extent to which each country is on track to meet its commitments under the Paris Agreement can be continuously tracked online (via the Climate Action Tracker and the Climate Clock). It will also enable the parties to progressively strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol set emission reduction targets for a handful of developed countries, but the United States withdrew and others did not. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human interference in Earth`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set greenhouse gas emission limits for individual countries and does not include enforcement mechanisms, but provides a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. While the Paris Agreement ultimately aims to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century, numerous studies evaluating each country`s voluntary commitments in Paris show that the cumulative effect of these emission reductions will not be large enough to keep temperatures below this ceiling. In fact, the targets set by countries are expected to limit the future temperature increase to 2.7 to 3.7 degrees Celsius. At the same time, recent assessments of how countries are behaving in the context of their Paris climate goals suggest that some countries are already failing to meet their commitments.
On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration sent an official notice to the United Nations stating that the United States intended to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it was legally allowed to do so.  The withdrawal request could only be submitted once the agreement for the United States had been in force for 3 years, on November 4, 2019.   On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government deposited the notice of withdrawal with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, depositary of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Climate Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal took effect.  After the November 2020 election, President-elect Joe Biden promised to join the United States under the Paris Agreement from his first day in office and to renew the United States` commitment to mitigate climate change.   The Paris Agreement establishes a set of binding measures to monitor, review and publicly report on progress towards a country`s emission reduction targets. .