The first commitment period of the protocol began in 2008 and ended in 2012. The 36 countries that fully participated in the first commitment period complied with the protocol. However, nine countries have had to resort to flexibility mechanisms by funding emission reductions in other countries, with their national emissions slightly above their targets. The 2007-08 financial crisis contributed to the reduction of emissions. The largest emission reductions were observed in the former Eastern Bloc countries because the dissolution of the Soviet Union reduced its emissions in the early 1990s.  Although the 36 developed countries reduced their emissions, global emissions increased by 32% between 1990 and 2010.  Each official measure has differences in what is included in its total and which is excluded. When international agreements were concluded, which required estimates on these bases, exceptions were sometimes made due to unavailability or lack of data (for example. B emissions from peat) and/or their measurement at the international level (for example. B emissions from international shipping or air travel). International and national agreements can be updated in the future if our ability to measure the causes of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The protocol left unresolved several issues that could be resolved later by the sixth UNFCCC Cop6 conference, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague at the end of 2000, but was unable to reach an agreement, as the European Union (which advocates stricter implementation) and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible) were unable to reach an agreement.
1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development is held in Rio de Janeiro. It is the result of, among other things, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (“FCCC” or “UNFCCC”) Gupta et al. (2007) evaluated the literature on climate policy. They found that no relevant evaluation of the UNFCCC or its protocol has stated that these agreements will solve the climate problem or be successful.  In these evaluations, it was considered that the UNFCCC or its protocol would not be changed. The Framework Convention and its protocol contain provisions for future policy measures to be taken. In 2001, the last meeting (COP6 bis) continued in Bonn  at which the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, proponents of the protocol (under the leadership of the European Union) managed to secure the agreement of Japan and Russia by allowing for increased use of carbon sinks. In 2012, a second commitment period known as the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was agreed, during which 37 countries have binding targets: Australia, the European Union (and its 28 Member States), Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine have stated that they cannot withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol or that they cannot implement the amendment with the objectives of the second round.  Japan, New Zealand and Russia participated in the first round of Kyoto, but did not meet new targets during the second commitment period.
Other industrialized countries without second-round targets are Canada (which withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012) and the United States (which has not ratified). Since October 2020, 147 states have accepted the Doha amendment. It will come into force on December 31, 2020, after being accepted by 144 states. Of the 37 parties with binding commitments, 34 have ratified the convention. The economic basis for this flexibility lies in the fact that the marginal cost of reducing (or reducing) emissions varies from country to country. 660 “marginal costs” are the costs associated with eviscerating the last tonne of CO2-eq for part of Schedule I/non-Annex I. At the time of the initial Kyoto targets, studies suggested that flexibility mechanisms could reduce the total (total) cost of achieving